Welcome to Ghana Civil Aviation Authority Training Academy

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The course allows one to gain an overview of the Performance-based Navigation (PBN) concept, GNSS theory, Area Navigation (RNAV), RNP and airspace planning and design.

Duration: Monday – Friday (5 Days),  from 8:30 – 5:00pm

Location: Ghana Civil Aviation Training Academy (GATA) at Kotoka International Airport.Accra.

Course Fee$1,950 per participant as the Regional Price



·         Upon completing this course you will:

  • ·         Understand the history of the ICAO Performance-based Navigation (PBN) concept
  • ·         Understand the latest on the ICAO Global Air Navigation Plan (Doc 9750)
  • ·         Be current on the types of Area Navigation (RNAV) systems
  • ·         Understand the fundamentals of GNSS theory, GNSS separation standards, and the benefits
  • ·         Apply the basics of RNAV and RNP procedures design
  • ·         Be more familiar with Instrument Approach Procedures, Standard Instrument Departures and Arrivals (SIDs and STARs)


This course is recommended for:

  • ·         Air Traffic Control Officers (ATCOs)
  • ·         Managers and supervisors from Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSP) and Civil Aviation Authorities (CAA)
  • ·         Personnel wishing to know the fundamentals of Air Traffic Control procedures and airspace design
  • ·         Airline managers and operational staff
  • ·         Aircraft Operations and Flight Planning personnel



  • ·         Evolution of ICAO Navigation Specifications leading up to the PBN concept
  • ·         The need for a global plan for implementation and harmonization of CNS/ATM systems around the world
  • ·         The ICAO Global Air Navigation Plan and timeline
  • ·         FANS, CNS/ATM, RNP, RNP/RNAV
  • ·         Relevant ICAO Specifications, in particular for en-route, terminal area and approach
  • ·         Regional differences and harmonization
  • ·         PBN in relation to existing and future airspace structures
  • ·         Types of Area Navigation (RNAV) systems
  • ·         RNAV systems and the following individual navigation system technologies: DME/DME, IRU, INS, GNSS, GPS, SBAS, GBAS, Galileo etc.
  • ·         Fundamentals of GNSS theory and GNSS separation standards and benefits
  • ·         The evolution of GNSS constellations and their augmentations systems (ABAS)
  • ·         Space-based and ground-based GNSS augmentations (SBAS, GBAS)
  • ·         GPS receiver and Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitor (RAIM)
  • ·         GNSS interference and relevant NOTAMs
  • ·         GNSS approvals
  • ·         GNSS (RNAV) approaches
  • ·         Lateral and longitudinal GNSS (RNAV) separation standards and benefits
  • ·         Other RNAV (GNSS) procedures
  • ·         Overview of how to validate RNAV and RNP procedures
  • ·         Fundamentals of RNAV and RNP procedure design
  • ·         En-route and Terminal Manoeuvring Area (TMA) RNAV procedures
  • ·         En-route Area Navigation, route spacing and the TLS
  • ·         Terminal Manoeuvring Area (TMA) Area Navigation
  • ·         Planning TMA Area Navigation Design and Implementation
  • ·         Types of RNP and RNAV, and the regional variants
  • ·         Instrument Approach Procedures
  • ·         Conventional and Area Navigation (RNAV) procedures and their influence on airspace design
  • ·         Procedure protection areas and their effect on airspace structure
  • ·         Controlling aircraft using Standard Instrument Departures and Arrivals (SIDs, STARs)
  • ·         Modular approach to TMA area navigation implementation
  • ·         Area Navigation Review
  • ·         Discussion on PBN and in particular RNAV and RNP to summarize all topics covered



PBN is seen as the most practical solution for the regulation of new navigation systems technology. PBN is the global solution to the existing costly system-specific approach which has seen each new navigation system technology (such as DME/DME, GPS, SBAS, GBAS, GRAS, Galileo, etc.) having to be associated with matching system-specific requirements such as obstacle clearance criteria, separation criteria etc.  PBN eliminates the need for redundant investment on the part of ICAO, implementing States, airlines and air navigation service providers.

The publication of the ICAO Doc 9613 AN/ 937 PBN Manual in October 2008 provides implementation guidance for states, aircraft operators and air navigation service providers. The ICAO PBN Manual contains a compendium of navigation specifications including the applicable approval and aircraft qualification requirements. Related terminology in ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) has been aligned to the new designation scheme. This package of material provides states with a common international framework for implementation of performance based navigation that will ensure regulatory harmonization with minimum impact on aircraft equipage and safety oversight.

The original ICAO Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concept was a supporting element of the Future Air Navigation Systems (FANS) concept whose purpose was to introduce flexibility and adaptability into global aviation operations by exploiting the C, N, S capabilities of modern aircraft on-board systems. The RNP concept allowed airspace planners to increase airspace capacity that exploited these on-board systems thus avoiding the existing lengthy process of industry compliance with sensor-dependent specifications.


To overcome shortcomings of the RNP concept, especially in terminal airspace, industry then developed the RNP/RNAV concept. Next, to meet industry demands and overcome partially divergent industry specifications, different types of RNP and/or RNAV were implemented based on regional needs. Finally, to overcome this proliferation and the burden placed on aircraft operators to meet regulatory compliance in different regions ICAO formed the Required Navigation Performance Special Operational Requirements Study Group (RNPSORSG). This ICAO study group has developed the PBN concept which is globally harmonized and meets current operational requirements and has the flexibility to meet future needs.

Certificate awarded


An IATA Certificate of Completion is awarded to participants obtaining a grade of 70% or higher on all exercises and exams. A special distinction is awarded to participants obtaining a grade of 90% or higher.